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A kidney infection could lead to serious problems

Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

This entry is part 3 of 6 in the series Dr Lisa

Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

A kidney infection could lead to serious problems

A kidney infection could lead to serious problems

Acute and chronic Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis) is the most common non-specific inflammatory diseases of the “upper urinary tract”. It is about 2/3 of all urological diseases. In addition, it is the most common kidney disease in the all age groups. Pyelonephritis can make you sick at any age but high risk groups are:
•    Children up to 7 years with developmental diseases of urinary system
•    Girls and women of 18-30 age. Pyelonephritis in this group is associated with the onset of sexual activity , pregnancy or childbirth (girls develop this disease 6 times more often than boys)
•    Older men with BPH
Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis) is a kidney disease having an inflammatory nature. In most of the cases, the causative agents are bacteria, most common being E. coli , Proteus, Enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus. These organisms spread throughout the body via the bloodstream (known as bacteremia) from any source of infection. Infection can also travel from lower urinary tract and then ascend upward towards kidneys. In this case, the disease begins with urethritis or cystitis . A common underlying cause of illness is urolithiasis (stone somewhere in urinary tract). Chronic illnesses, frequent hypothermia and other adverse factors make the kidneys particularly vulnerable to such disease processes.
Symptoms of acute pyelonephritis:
•    a sharp rise in body temperature to 39-40 ° C,
•    weakness,
•    headache ,
•    profuse sweating ,
•    loss of appetite,
•    nausea and vomiting ,
•    pain
•    children: abdominal pain .

Urine analysis reveals pus cells, red blood cells, proteins and a large number of bacteria.
Chronic Pyelonephritis is often caused by undiagnosed or partially treated acute pyelonephritis. In this case, the patient shows non-specific signs and symptoms e.g. fatigability, fever, hypertension , painful urination, increased frequency of urination etc. During periods of exacerbations, these patients exhibit all signs of acute pyelonephritis listed above. If untreated, a pyelonephritis may develop into suppurative complications e.g. renal abscess or carbuncle, necrosis of the renal papillae etc. All of these complications are indicators for surgery or some invasive procedure.

Treatment

Mainstay of treatment is antibiotics. Treatment of pyelonephritis usually lasts 2-3 weeks. In severe cases, surgery may be needed. Kidney de-capsulation is performed in purulent pyelonephritis (Pyelonephritis in which frank pus is formed).
The best means of preventing pyelonephritis is timely treatment of diseases that predispose to this condition (primarily, urolithiasis and benign prostatic hyperplasia). Special care should be adopted by pregnant women with multiple pregnancies, Polyhydramnios etc. Experts recommend at least one bacteriological analysis of urine and urodynamic study per month in such patients.

Dr Lisa